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Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta


Course Synopsis


ELE 201:  APPLIED ELECTRICITY I                (2 Units)


Foundation of electric circuit theory: circuit elements, resistors, capacitors and inductors.  Kichoff’s laws.  Network theorems: Thevenin, Norton and super-position theorems.  Transient response or RC, RL and RLC circuit.


Elementary discussion of semiconductors: pn-junction diode, npn and pnp transistors.  Full wave and half-wave rectification circuits and smoothing  circuits.  Electric lamps and illumination.

Introduction to electrostatics and capacitance.



ELE 202:  APPLIED ELECTRICITY II                (2 Units)


Magnetic field of currents in space: magnetic flux and flux density.  Corkscrew rule, solenoid and magnetomotivee force.  Periodic wave forms – their average and effective values.  Characteristics and use of non-linear elements in simple circuit.


Single phase alternating current circ units: complex impedances and admittances.  Phasor diagrams.  Series and parallel resonant circuits.  Magnetic circuits mutual inductance, transformers.  Introduction to electrical generators and motors.  Power factor correction.  Introduction to measuring instruments: moving coil instruments, oscilloscope, electrostic voltmeter..  AC and DC bridges.





Students would be attached to Electrical Engineering based industries in Ogun State for the long vacation period.  They would be expected to receive practical training in any Electrical Engineering activities in industries such as NEPA, Communications (Radio and TV Broadcast and Telephone), Manufacturing and I.T. based, etc.


Detailed report of students experience and activities during the period of attachment would be submitted by students not later than the first week of the following semester.  Grading will be based on the written report, oral presentation in a seminar and on-site assessment by University and industry-based Supervisors.



ELE  301 – ELECTRIC CIRCUIT THEORY I             (3 Units)

Node, loop and cut-set analysis of linear networks.  Network graph theory and applications.  Frequency response of networks.  Poles and zeroes, Bode plots and root locus concept.  Periodic non-sinusoidal currents and linear circuits.  Two-port networks, ladder networks and electric filters.





Some properties of three-phase systems; balanced delta and wye connected loads.  Delta-wye transformation.  Unbalanced delta and wye connected.   Operational methods of transient analysis of lumped network.  Laplace transforms and analysis of RLC circuits, transfer functions concepts and reliability of transfer functions.  Forster and cauer methods of synthesis of 2-port networks.  Active filters.  Fourrier transform of non-linear a.c circuits.



ELE 303 – ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY I             (3 Units)


Electrostatic fields due to distribution of charge, magnetic fields in and around current carrying conductors.  Review of electromagnetic laws in  integral form; Gauss’ Law’ Ampere’s and Lapalace’s equations and methods of solution.  Boundary value problems.



ELE 304 – ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY II             (3 Units)


Maxwell’s equation (in rectangular co-ordinates and vector-calculus notation) and its applications.  Derivation of Maxwell’s equation; electromagnetic potentials and waves.  Plane waves  and plane wave propagation.  Electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic wave propagation in bounded and unbounded media.  Poynting vector, boundary conditions; wave propagation in good conductors, skin effect, fundamentals of transmission lines, wave-guides and antennae.



ELE 305 – ELECTRICAL MACHINES I                 (3 Units)


Coupled circuits, air cored transformers, equivalent circuits.  Iron cored transformers, equivalent circuits.  Referred impedence, no-load test, short-circuit test and efficiency of single phase transformers.  Three phase transformers.  Group connection of windings, auto transformers.  Instrument transformers.

Armature winding, principle of commutation.  Torque and emf-expressions.  Generator and motor configurations.  Characteristics of series, shunt and compound wound motors.  Speed control and electric breaking, cross field machines. Commutator machines.



ELE 306 – ELECTRICAL MACHINES  II             (3 Units)


Magnetic flux, distribution of induced emf, equivalent circuit, power balance, equivalent circuit referred to stator.  Torque-slip characteristics for generating and motoring actions.  The circle diagram.  Methods of starting and speed control.  Double cage induction motor.  Single phase motors.





Synchronous machines theory.  Equivalent circuit and phasor diagrams for cylindrical rotor.  Effect of change in excitation, the V-characterisitics with regards to transmission lines.  Short-circuit analysis of synchronous machine, d-, q-axis analysis of salient pole machines.



ELE 307 – ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS  I                 (3 Units)


Review of 2-port network theory applied to transistor circuits.  Transistor characteristics (Bipolar and FET).  Analysis of single and multistage transistor amplifiers, frequency response analysis.  Power amplifiers:  Class A,B,C and push-pull amplifiers.  Feedback amplifiers. Oscillators.  Introduction to operational amplifiers.  Stabilized power supplies.  Use of electronic devices in voltage regulation.  Review of elementary digital concepts, switching properties of electronic devices.



ELE 308 – ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS II                 (3 Units)


Switching and wave shaping circuits.  Generation of non-sinusoidal waveforms: astable, monostable and bistable multivibrators.  Timer chips and their applications.  Analysis and design of logic gates of various families, diode logic, RTL, TTL, ECL, MOST.  Introduction to basic logic functions: AND, OR, NOT etc.  Bolleam algebra, simple logic circuits.  Minimization of logic functions, k-map.  Sequential circuits, RS, JK, DT. Flip-flop, registers, counters and decoders.  Introduction to D/A and A/D conversion principles.



ELE 309 – PHYSICAL ELECTRONICS                 (3 Units)


Elementary physical electronics:  Crystal structure, electron and energy band schemes in conductors, insulators and semiconductors.  Electrons in metals and electron emission.  Carriers and transport phenomena and photo devices, junction diodes and transistors, FETS, SCR, vacuum tubes, photo-resistors, solar cells, photo-diodes, photo-transistors, photo-cells and LEDs, LASERS etc.  Elementary discrete devices fabrication techniques and IC technology.




Selected experiments relating to the theoretical courses: in Electric Circuit Theory I, Electromagnetic Theory I, Electrical Machines I and Electronic Circuits I.





Selected experiments relating to the theoretical courses: in Electric Circuit Theory II, Electromagnetic Theory II, Electrical Machines II Electronic Circuits II





Students would be attached to Electrical Engineering based industries.  They would be expected to receive practical training in Electrical Engineering activities in industries such as NEPA, Communications, Manufacturing, I.T. based, Petroleum, Aircraft, Electrical Engineering Consultancy, etc.

Detailed report of students experience and activities during the period of attachment would be submitted by students not later than the first week of the following semester.  Grading will be based on the written report, oral presentation in a seminar and on-site assessment by University and including-based Supervisors.



ELE 401 ELECTRIC POWER PRINCIPLES             (3 Units)


Power sources.  Principles and methods of energy conversion employing steam, gas, water, nuclear, wind and magneto hydrodynamic generation.  Design and organization of power stations.  Siting of power station.  Power station auxiliaries.

Components of power generating system.  Prime mover systems, generators, characteristics, equivalent  circuits, control and operation.  Voltage regulation.  Economics of power generation.  Supply system, transmission and distribution systems, rated voltages and frequency.  Substations; types, switch-gear and busbar structures.





Control system concept: open and closed loop control systems, block diagrams.  Resume of Laplace transform.  Transfer functions of electrical and control systems.  Electromechanical devices:  Simple and multiple gear trains, electrical and mechanical analysis.  Error detector and  transducer in control systems.  The amplidyne:  AC and DC tachogenerator and servomotors, rotary and translational potentiometers.  Hydraulic and pneumatic servomotors and controllers.  Dynamics of simple servomechanism.  Steady state error and error constants, the use of non-dimensional notations and the frequency response test.  Log and polar plots of control systems.  Basic stability concepts in control systems.



ELE 405 – COMMUNICATION PRINCIPLES             (3 Units)


Basic concepts of a communication system – source, channel and user.  Signal and systems analysis, fourier series.  Amplitude modulation; double sideband, single sideband and vestigial sideband modulation schemes; simple modulators, power and bandwidth performance.  Angle modulation, frequency modulation, phase modulation, bandwidth requirements, clippers and limiters.  Wideband and narrowband FM, AM, detector and FM discriminator, frequency tracking loop, phase locked loop and noise performance.  Commercial radio systems.  Transmission media: attenuation in open space, air, cable and fibre channels.  Sampling principles, theorems and techniques.  Pulse modulation: PAM, PWM and PCM.  Ideal and matched filters, frequency acquisition, phase referencing and timing.  Line codes, block encoding and Shanon’s theorem.





Principles of measurements: errors and accuracy – units of measurements, standard symbols for electrical measuring instruments and electrical standards.  Basic meter in DC measurement.  Basic meter in AC measurement; instruments for direct measurement of current and voltage – moving coil, moving iron, electrodynamic and electrostatic measuring instruments.  DC and AC bridges and their applications.  Measurement of electrical energy, power, power factor and frequency.  Measurement of magnetic field strength.  Electronic instruments for the measurement of voltage, current, resistance and other circuit parameters.  Principle of the cathode-ray oscilloscope.

Introduction to semiconductor device testers, electronic counters and digital meters.



ELE 409 – POWER ELECTRONICS                 (3 Units)


Introduction to  power semiconductor components.  Power rectifier and circuits; half-wave, full-wave and three phase full-wave controlled rectifier circuits.  Voltage-time area analysis.  Single-phase and poly-phase inverter circuits, harmonic analysis.  Chopper circuits; types A and B.  Four quadrant chopper circuits.  D.C. to A.C. converters.  Application of power semi-conductor circuits; regulated power supplies, uninterruptible power supplies.  Induction healing and relays.





Selected experiments relating to the theoretical courses: in Electric Power Principles, Servomechanism and Control, Communication Principles, Measurement and Instrumentation and Power Electronics



ELE 501 – CONTROL ENGINEERING I             (3 Units)


Linear control systems.  Stability:  Nyquist stability criterion. Bode diagram approach; the root locus and root contour method.  Design of linear servo systems, Compensation designs using the Body and root locus methods.  Multiple loop feedback systems; Minimization of unwanted disturbances.  Single and multiterm electronic process controllers.  Hydraulic and pneumatic controller; Introduction to analogue and hybrid computation, sensitivity of control systems.

A.C. control system.  Synchros; suppressed carrier modulation, hybrid AC/DC control systems; practical considerations in a.c control design.





Introduction to reliability, maintainability, availability and elementary reliability theory.  Application to power systems and electronic components.
Test characteristics of electrical and electronic components.  Types of fault.  Designing for higher reliability.  Packaging, mounting, ventilation, protection from humidity and dust.



ELE 503 – DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING             (3 Units)


Network synthesis realizability of driving point impedance, synthesis of two-terminal networks.  Foster Form realization, minimum phase and non-minimum phase networks.

Discrete signals and Z-transform, Digital Fourier transform, Fast Fourier Transform.  The approximation problem in network theory.  Filter design and synthesis.  Spectral transforms and their application in the synthesis of high-pass and band-pass filters.

Digital filtering, digital transfer function one-dimensional recursive and non-recursive filters, computer techniques in filters synthesis Hardware and software realization of filters.  Basic image processing concepts.





Elements of digital computer design: control units, micro-programming.  Bus: organization and addressing schemes.  Microprocessors, system architecture bus control instruction, execution and addressing modes.  Machine code assembly language and high-level language programming.  Microprocessors as state machines, microprocessor interfacing: input/output, technique, interrupt systems and direct memory access:  interfacing system development tools: simulators, EPROM programming, assemblers and loaders.  Overview of available microprocessor and microcomputer and systems, operating system and compiler.  Microprocessor applications.





Review of transmission line theory/use of Smith’s Chart. Single-double-stub machine on lines, quarter wave line as impedance transformer.  Common wave guides.  Propagation in rectangular waveguides, attenuation in guides, guide terminations resonant cavities.  Introduction to radio wave propagation in the MW and HF bands, HF communication on power.





Design and organization of power supply: rated voltages and frequency.  Types of power consumers and their characteristics.  Lighting systems and installation: Lighting control circuits.  Electrical heating: heating of buildings, electrical furnaces, electrical welding, air conditioning and refrigeration.  Electro-chemical processes.  Motor control for industrial system: General and special factory drives.  Regulations on installation and operation of electrical equipment.  Metering and tariff systems.



ELE 507 – COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS              (1 Units)


Microwave frequencies and uses; microwave transmission in transmission lines and wave guides, microwave circuits; impedance transformation and matching, passive microwave devices, resonant and filter circuits, active microwave devices; Klystron and magnetron tubes and semiconductor devices for microwave generation.  Antennae: definition of elementary parameters related to radiation patterns; dispose and aperture antennae and related design parameters; introduction to antennae arrays.  Radiowave propagation: propagation in the ionosphere, tropshere and in stratified media; principles of scatter propagation: application in general broadcast, television and satellite communication systems.  Radar systems: nature of radar and radar equation; composition of a radar system; application of different types of radars.





Introduction to telephony signaling system.  Principles of automatic telephone; strowger and Cross bar exchanges, Electronic switching system.  Traffic consideration.  Telegraph, telex and facsmile transmission, data transmission.  TDM and FDM systems.  Introduction to Satellite Communication Systems.  Multiple access methods in satellite communication.  Earth stations for international telephony and TV.



ELE 509 – RADIO ENGINEERING                 (3 Units)


Tropospheric propagation:  Special features of VHF and UHF propagation. Propagation characteristics at microwave frequencies.  Design of microwave links system.
Radio transmitters and receivers, mono and stereo broadcasting.  Practical antenna systems:  L.F. M.F.  VHF and UHF antennas.





Introduction to Television Engineering, Black and White Television Broadcasting, Colour Television Systems.  NTSC, PAL, SECAM, Television Transmitters and Receivers Cable Television Systems, H.F. System, VHF Systems, Mixed Systems UHF Systems, Mixed Systems, UHF Systems , Switched Systems, R.F. video and tuned amplifiers design.
Sub-marine cable system. Optical fibre communication system.



ELE 511 – HIGH VOTAGE ENGINERING I             (3 Units)


Switching over-voltages; interruption of short circuits interruption of capacitive and inductive circuits, current chopping, Arc extinction.  Propagation of  surges  in h.v. transmission lines, lighting surges.  Protection from direct lightning strokes.  Earthning.  Corona and radio interference.  Propagation of surges in transformers.  Means of reducing overvoltages.  Insulation coordination.



ELE 512 – HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING II             (3 Units)


Discharge in gases, Breakdown voltage in gases according to experimental data. Discharge in a gas along the surface of a solid dielectric.  Line and substation insulation; overhead line,busbars, isolators and circuit breakers insulation.

Concept of breakdown in vacuum, liquids and solids; theories and mechanism of breakdown in the listed media and their high voltage properties.  Insulation of transformers; generators, cable and condensers.  Insulation of transformers; generators, cable and condensers.  Preventive testing of insulation, processes in a multi-layer dielectric, measurement of tan d, capacitance, partial discharge voltage distribution, leakage resistance.



ELE 513 – POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING  I             (3 Units)


Overhead transmission lines; line parameter (R,L and C) calculations.  Equivalent circuits of transmission lines,  underground cables, types and parameters.
Modelling of power components; Static load flow studies: Gauseidel and Newton-Rapson solution techniques.

Digital computer solution.  Control of voltage, real and reactive power in load flow problems.  Faults in Power Systems:  Short-circuit analysis of synchronous machines.  Symmetrical fault analysis.





Power System Protection:  Operating principles and constructional features of relays, Operating mechanism, control circuits, Protection of transmission lines,  transformers, generators and motors.  Automatic reclosure and out-in of standby supply.  Power System Control:  Voltage and reactive power control frequency and real power control.  Power System Stability:  Nature and causes of instability.  Steady state and transient stability analysis.  Power System Planning:  Design considerations and load forcasting Area Co-ordination and Pooling, Siting of new generation stations.  Station management and maintenance routine.



ELE 515 – CONTROL ENGINEERING II             (3 Units)


Liapunov stability analysis 1st and 2nd method of Liapunov; stability analysis of linear and non-linear systems using the Liapunov method.  Optical control theory and application controllability and observability.  Application of calculus of variation, dynamic programming and pontryagins maximum principles; Time optical control system, optimal systems based on the quadratic performance indices.  Minimum time problem minimum fuel consumption problem minimum energy problem.  Liapunov second and approach to solution of optimal control problems.  Model reference control system introduction to Adaptive control system.



ELE 516 – CONTROL ENGINEERING III             (3 Units)


Non-linear differential equations.  Characteristics of non-linear systems; common non-linearities.  Analysis of non-linear systems:  Linearizing approximations, piecewise linear approximation, the describing function concept and derivation for common non-linearities, the duel input and derivation for common non-linearities, the duel input describing function; stability analysis using the plane method function.  Limit cycle prediction.  The phase plane method construction of phase trajectories, stability analysis by the phase plane method.  Introduction to state space analysis:  Matrix representation of control systems.  Introduction to sample data systems; The z-transforms; pulse transfer function and stability analysis in the z-plane.





Introduction to the design of electronic equipment.  Specifications including environmental factors such as vibration, humidity and temperature, Tolerance and safety measures.  Reliability and testing.  Duplication of least reliable parts (standbye).  Ergonomic, aesthetics and economics.  Miniature and microminiature constructor using printed circuits and integrated circuits.  Maintainability, computer design methods.



ELE 518 – DYNAMIC SYSTEM SIMULATION             (3 Units)


Analogue and hybrid computer hardware units.  Analogue simulations; Study of  Differential equations; Generation of time base reference amplitude and time scaling; simulation of control system from block diagrams, transfer functions and state equations, Analogue memory and its applications, repetitive and iterative operation of an analogue computer.


Digital Simulation:  Comparison of digital and analogue/hybrid simulation:  Block form and expression based languages; interaction; function generation; iteratiave computation.  Hybrid computers:  Hardware and software; Assembly routines and interpretive language for hybrid computing; sequential and simultaneous hybrid computing.  Special  applications, On-line computing processes; Computer techniques for plotting Root-locus, Bode Plots etc., Minimum fuel and regulator problem by hybrid and digital techniques etc .  Application programm in computer aided design of Electronic and Electrical Systems.






The growth of single crystal silicon for IC fabrication.  Wafer preparation, defect structure, characterization techniques.  Oxidation; oxide properties and oxidation kinetics.  Thermal oxidation process, anodic oxidation process.  Oxidation of compound semiconductors.  Diffusion, diffusion methods, diffusion mechanisms, determination of diffusion coefficient – concentration profiles.  Ion Implantation technique and equipment, ion-beam mixing and material modification.  Sinte`ing.  Metalization: thin film deposition, characterization and patterning.  Photo-fabrication and lithography.  Chemical vapour deposition techniques – epitaxy.  Resist systems and exposure.  Encapsulation techniques.  Passive devices technology including various types of resistors, capacitors and inductors.






Review of semiconductor physics.  Junction theory and properties.  Basic consideration for IC processing.  Bipolar IC technology (including diodes, transistors and passive components).  VLSI circuits.  Assembly processing and packaging: wafer separation and sorting, die interconnection.  Package types and fabrication technologies.  Yield and reliability: accelerated testing and failure mechanisms.  Mechanism of yield loss in VLSI, reliability requirements.  Mathematics of failure distributions, reliability ad failure rates.




ELE 521 – OPTICAL ELECTRONICS                 (3 Units)


Propagation of plane waves.  Optical fibres.  Optical spectra of atoms, molecules and solids.  Light – semiconductors interaction.  Light emitting diodes.  (LEDs).  Laser fundamentals: operating principles, structures and properties.  Laser types; ruby, gas and semiconductor lasers. Detectors, photodetector and noise.  Basic optical processes of absorption and recombination in bulk and quantum well structures.  Laser diodes.  Optical cavities.






Physics of interaction of photons with solid materials: Light-semiconductor interaction.  Physical structures of the following devices and their applications: photodiodes, light emitting diodes (LEDs), luminerscent materials, photo-resistors, light detectors, lasers and optical fibre.  Fibre optic communications.  The semiconductor injection laser ad optical amplifiers.  Optoelectronic modulation and switching devices.

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