This programme provides opportunities for graduates with backgrounds in wáter-related scientific, engineering and environmental disciplines to enhance their knowledge of the water environment and its management from the perspectives of climate change. The programme is aimed to train a new breed of scientists capable of new thinking to profer demand-driven solutions to hydrological and water resources problems with the understanding that past hydrological behaviour may no longer be a suitable guide for the future. This training is designed to involve theoretical, practical, computational and internships training that will be very relevant to the needs of today’s water industry, especially in the African Continent. The proposed option has a total of 36 unit courses including 10 units of Centre courses, 16 units of compulsory option courses and 2 units of elective option courses. Research projects thesis and internship reports carry 4 Units each.
The course synopses are:
HCC 701: Mathematical methods and numerical application (2 Units)
The main content of the course include Mathematical methods, Numerical methods, Statistics and probability and Computer application. Tópics under each of these main content are Matrix algebra, Laplace transforms and Fourier series, Z transforms, differential (also partial) equations (special application to surface water, or groundwater problems will be dealt with under respective sections); Classification of differential equations (elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic), Difference equations, Solution methods (finite difference and introduction to finite elements), Initial and boundary conditions. The students will learn Probability problems in hydrology, Statistical parameters, Distributions, Extreme values, Regression and correlation, Likelihood and hypothesis testing. Others will include Types of computers, Computer programming and Data handling
HCC 703: Fluid mechanics (2 Units)
Understanding the physical properties of fluid and its flow mecahnisms are important in hydrological studies. Therefore, this course will include Fluid mechanics: Mechanics of ideal fluid, Potential flow, flow nets, Laplace equation, Flow in porous media, Mechanics of viscous flow, Navier-Stokes equation (optional), Reynold stresses, Reynold’s equation (optional), Boundary layer theory, velocity distribution (optional). Hydraulics: Physical properties of water, Uniform flow in open channels, Equation of continuity and motion, Gradually varied non-uniform flow (back water curves), Flow over and in hydraulic structures, hydraulic jump and head losses, Hydraulic models, Theory of groundwater flow and Mathematical treatment of a number of important flow problems.
HCC 705: Geosciences, Hydrological observations, Processes and Analysis (2 Units)
Hydrogeological índices and analysis of its processes are basic to understanding of climatic parameters. The topic under this course will include Hydrometeorology/Climatology: Atmospheric Physics (atmospheric gas laws, radiation, water vapour flux), Climate of various regions, Climatic variation in time, Intercontinental exchange of air masses versus local variation and microclimate; Morphometry: Evolution of land forms, Morphometric indices, Introduction to erosion and sedimentation processes; Soil sciences: Physical and chemical properties of soils, Soil formation, mapping and, classification; land evaluation; Hydrogeology: Geologic formations in view of their hydraulic properties, Properties and occurrence of rocks, Rock-water-air relationship, Introduction to hydrogeology. Others will include Hydrometeorological measurement: Precipitation (type of recording; rain, snow; radar and satellite pictures; accuracy and reliability), Synoptic climatological measurements (temperature, humidity, wind speed, radiation), Evaporation (pan evaporation, lysimeter, areal evaporation); Hydrometry: Organization of hydrometric works, Water level Discharge measurement (velocity-area methods, tracer methods, hydraulic measurement structures), Establishment of rating curves, river bed stability and influence of Vegetation; Primary data processing: Observational procedures (time step, type of recording), Collection and transmission, Data banks; storage and retrieval, Primary and secondary data Processing and publication
HCC 707: Hydrological processes and analysis (2 units)
Hydrological processes and analysis includes Hydrological cycle and Terminologies,
Forms of precipitation and accuracy of measurement, Distribution and characteristics of rainfall, Determination of areal rainfall (representativeness of point measurements), Intensity-duration and depth-duration relationships, Snows. Evaporation from open water, intercepted water and bare soil, Transpiration, Evapotranspiration, Concepts of actual and potential évapotranspiration, Theories and formulae of évapotranspiration (the energy and mass transfer approaches), Determination by measurements (pans, lysimeters etc.). Factors governing infiltration, Formulae for estimating infiltration, Relation to surface runoff and groundwater recharge, measuring techniques. Soil wáter: Water in the unsaturated zone (capillary rise, percolation, depth to water table), Soil moisture content, Soil water potential, Soil moisture characteristics, Hysterisis. Soil-water-plant relationship, Measuring methods (Direct – gravimetric methods, and indirect – electrical resistance methods, neutron probes etc.). Surface runoff: Depression storage, overland flow, surface detention, discharge Floods, Analysis of flood hydrograph, separation of base flow and direct runoff Unit hydrograph method, Synthetic hydrograph, Maximum flood and frequeny of occurrence, Flood routing, Low flow, Droughts. Solid matter transport: Sampling techniques, Sediment yield, Sediment properties (suspended and bed load), initiation of motion, Theories of sediment transport, Bed forms, alluvial roughness, Deposition and bed erosion, stable channels, local scour Sediment transport and water quality.
HCC 700: Hydrological modelling (2 units)
Description of network: Network design, Characteristics of hydrological elements with reference to network design, Systems analysis and design theory, Techniques for network design, regionalization. Criteria for the use of data for modelling: Accuracy, Time intervals, Error detection and correction. Classification of models: Terminology, model technique (physical models, analog and mathematical models), model-prototype relationship, limitations, Deterministic and stochastic principles, Lumped and distributed models, Linear and non-linear models. Stochastic models: Introduction to stochastic processes, Random events, stationarity, Time series analysis, Markovian processes, Filtering. Deterministic models: Deterministic methods in system hydrology, Analytical and numerical solution of equation of motion and continuity, Blackbox analysis, Conceptual models Mathematical physical models, Flood routing models, Optimization of model parameters, criteria, techniques. Hydrological forecasting: Forecast methods: short-term forecast, on-line systems, updating of parameters; long-term forecast for seasonal runoff, off-line systems. Application to floods, low flow, ice, water temperature.
HCC 702: Groundwater and Remote Sensing (2 units)
Groundwater: Origin and occurrence of groundwater, Types of aquifers, hydrolgy of fissured and fractures rocks, types of springs, Hydrological properties of porous media, Geohydrological investigations and mapping, Interaction of surface water and groundwater, Darcy’s law and equation of continuity, Confined, semi-confined and unconfined steady flow, Principles of superposition and methods of images. Flow nets, numerical solution methods; introduction to groundwater models. Measurement of piezometric head, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, water quality and temperature, Groundwater level forecasting, Tracer and nuclear techniques, Fresh and saline water, Effects of groundwater extraction (land subsidence, crop yield, river, discharge etc.). Mapping, photo interpretation: Cartography, projections, Hydrological legends, Presentation on maps of variables in space and time, computer maps; presentation of three-dimensional problems, Surface water maps, water quality maps, groundwater maps, continental, hydrogeological maps, Remote sensing, aerial surveying; interpretation of aerial photographs and space imagery
HCC 704: Environmental aspects (2 units)
Basic understanding of the environmental constituents is important to hydrologic and climatic studies.Topics cover by this course include Water chemistry and water biology:
Composition and characteristics of surface and groundwater, Biochemical cycles, C , N, P and S, Main chemical water quality parameters, Introduction to instruments, Genetics, breeding of plants and animals, Ecosystems (principal system, baseline surveys), Aquatic ecology, Population dynamics, carrying capacity; Surface water quality: Factors affecting water quality and pollution by human, industrial and Agricultural wastes, Water quality criteria, Stratification and eutrophication in lakes and reservoirs, Thermal pollution, Self-purification, Water-related diseases, Water quality monitoring; water quality classification, accumulation of heavy metals and toxic organic metals in sediments; Groundwater quality: Processes determining groundwater quality, Sources of groundwater pollution and effects on groundwater quality (N-,P-organic micro-pollutants, heavy metals, nuclear wastes), Artificial groundwater recharge, Flow lines and residence time of polluted groundwater, Leaching from waste disposals, Protection of groundwater, sanitation and prevention, Groundwater quality monitoring, sampling techniques. Soil conservation and erosion control: Continental erosion and sediment transport to the ocean, Factors affecting surface erosion, Soil loss tolerance, Surface and linear erosion control, Wind erosion, erosion modelling. Environmental impact assessment: Environmental conservation and public health objective for water resources and civil engineering projects, Environmental planning and conservation strategies, Land use and soil conservation; groundwater protection Case studies (implementation of irrigation schemes; dam construction; land reclamation), Identification, prediction and assessment of environmental impacts.
HCC 706: Application to water resources management (2 units)
Water demands: Water demands and resources, Water balance as a tool for water resource management, Quality requirements and standards for different types of water use, Estimation of water use for domestic, industrial and agricultural water requirements (peak water demands, long-term trend, water use pattern). Economics of water resources planning: Engineering economy; financial and economic analysis, Cost-benefit analysis and rate of turnover criteria, Cost models for water resources schemes Tarification policy, Analysis of project returns. Systems analysis: Analysis of linear input-output systems, Identification of objectives, economic benefits, cost and decision variables, Application of systems analysis to problems of water resources engineering, and environmental management Optimization methods (linear programming, dynamic programming, simulation, Sensitivity analysis etc.). Reservoir sizing and operation: General requirement for the design, Compatibility of various uses, Analysis of factors affecting the operation, Sizing of single and multipurpose reservoir (effective storage, dead storage, losses, design – flood, freeboard), Silting-up of reservoir, Optimization of operation rules, Series of reservoirs, Flood retention basins. Integrated management and master plans: Principles for integrated basin management, Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater, Impact on the hydrological regime, Hydrological data for design purposes
HCC 708: Climate Change: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (2 units)
Key Vulnerabilities and Risk and frameworks for assessment;
Impacts and Adaptation – water resources;
Impacts and Adaptation – Flooding: Fluvial and pluvial, Sea level rise and coastal;
Impacts and Adaptation – Critical infrastructure;
Impacts and Adaptation – Food and agriculture, water-energy nexus;
Impacts and Adaptation – Heat, people and buildings;
Consolidation: Sustainable Cities: strategy, design and implementation.
HCC 709: Climate Change: Earth System, Future Scenarios and Threats (2 units)
An overview of climate change History, context: science vs engineering, evidence vs belief, vested interests and political aspects, aims of the modules and roadmap. The earth system: the general circulation, atmosphere-ocean, cryosphere, greenhouse effect. The grand cycles: Hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, biogeochemical cycles and linkages, CO2. Climate variability: Causes and signals, Milankovitch, ice ages, solar, volcanic, ENSO, NAO, Sahel drought etc. Past climate: palaeoclimates, proxies, non-instrumental records, climate reconstruction, implications for future. Anthropogenic forcing: enhanced greenhouse effect, sources and budgets of greenhouse gases, emissions scenarios, large scale land use changes, urbanisation, urban heat-islands. Observed changes: Surface and atmospheric – temperature, rainfall, humidity,
HCC 712: Internships Reports and Seminars (4 Units)
HCC 799: Research Project (4 Units)
Last Updated on April 10, 2019 by admin